School+ -- Mainstream Inclusion

The 3rd Autism plan gives priority for reinforcement of school inclusion and school accompaniment of children and youths with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, mainstream school inclusion of students with ASD is often compromised because of their socio-adaptive difficulties, which notably occur during first-time mainstream inclusion. For this reason, children/youths with ASD are often included into mainstream schools, but in specialized classrooms, called ULIS (Unité Localisée pour l’Inclusion Scolaire – Located Unit for School Inclusion) in middle school.

Since 2012, Phoenix team is working closely with French Education Ministry, Bordeaux Academy and Rectorship, as well as the Autism Ressources Center in Aquitaine, for developing a study aiming to design and evaluate the efficacy of a school digital assistant on tablets. This school digital assistant, composed with several tools for students in ULIS, is designed for supporting educational and communication activities in order to facilitate school inclusion in mainstream settings for core lessons (French, history, geography, etc.)

A multidisciplinary approach was necessary to cover the whole range of activities of this project (from people needs’ analysis to the deployment and the evaluation of the school assistant, and along with software development). Then, the project gathers researchers in computers sciences (Charles Consel, Phoenix team, INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest), in cognitive sciences (Hélène Sauzéon, Lab. “Handicap, Activité, Cognition, Santé” EA-4136, SFR Neurosciences, University of Bordeaux), and in child psychiatry (Kattalin Etchegoyhen, Anouck Amestoy, Manuel Bouvard, Autism Ressources Center of Aquitaine, Charles Perrens hospital center).

Applications

School+ is a package of 7 applications: three are assistive applications for guiding the student to do specific tasks ; three are training applications designed as serious games for addressing specific skills that are involved in social situations at school ; and the last is a meta-application which provides links to the three training applications, as well as an access to usage statistics (usage frequency, level progress, etc.). Data of each application are managed separately from the interface, for allowing the modification of the content at anytime, without interface adjustements. By doing this, we offer a way to customize the content of School+ applications (pictures, texts, settings, etc.), while preserving the whole interface. Each application records a log file containing all interaction with the user (i.e. the youth).

Assistive applications

School routines application. This application aims to guide the child through classroom activities and situations: enter classroom, take school material out of the shoolbag, take notes, manage agenda and write homework, leave the classroom. Each activity have been decomposed in several steps for guiding the user during the execution of the activity. When the user select a task in the list, the application provide the guidance through a slideshow, which display both text and image about the step to execute. Also, thumbnails of previous and next steps are displayed.

Communication application. With the same design as school routines, this application aims to guide the child throough communication activities and situations in the classroom. Four scenarios are available for addressing both interaction initiation and response, as well as interaction with either teacher or classmate. Steps for each activities are displayed through a slideshow, as for the school routine application.

Emotion Regulation application. This application aims to assist the child to self-regulate his/her emotions. The application first displays four elementary emotions (joy, anger, sadness, fear), and offers the child selecting the emotion he/she actually feels. Then, the child can select the level of intensity through a visual thermometer scaling from 1 to 4. According to the level selected by the child, the application will deliver multimedia content adapted to the child's preferences for helping him/her regulate emotions: at level 1, a text with relaxation strategy is displayed ; at level 2, pictures are displayed ; at level 3, a video is displayed ; and at level 4, the text displayed propose to go out of the classroom for taking the time to rest. The displayed content can be modified to meet the user's preferences, with advices of parents, professionals and teachers.

Training applications

Three training applications have been designed as serious games, with increasing difficulty levels (reachable after a ratio of good answer).

Static Emotion Recognition application. This application aims to train emotion recogntion skills from pictures. The child is required to find an emotion among four pictures of people exhibiting diffrent emotions. Instructions are displayed acompanied with a emoticon depicting the asked emotion. There are seven possible emotions to identify : joy, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust and neutral. Difficulty levels consists of showing pictures of familiar vs. unfamiliar people.

Dynamic Emotion Recognition application.  This application aims to train emotion recogntion skills from videos. A short video is presented to the user, and stopped at some point to ask the user to identify the emotion of a character. There are four possible emotions to identify: joy, sadness, fear, anger. The presented video can be slowed down according to a adjustable speed percentage. Also, there are different types of video for providing difficulty levels : 1) basic cartoon (basic form untextured), 2) more sophisticated cartoons, and 3) movies with actors.

Eye Contact Training. This application aims to train gaze orientation towards social stimuli. A picture of a face is presented to the student. Few seconds after, a symbol appears briefly in the eyes of the character depicted. Then, we asked the student to select the depicted symbol among several items. Thus, for successing in a given trial, the student have to look at the eye region, in order to see the breifly displayed symbol. By doing this, the application allows to train the student to pay attention to relevant social stimuli. Two difficulty levels have been implemented : 1) pictures of faces (symbol in the eyes) ; 2) picture of social scenes (symbol on the important person). Also, the symbol's display speed increase with the difficulty level.

Evaluation

School+ was assessed in real settings in ULIS classrooms of three public French middle schools, which enrolled students with ASD or others cognitive disabilities. For evaluating the effects of School+, a test battery was constituted and administred to the participants before and after a 3-month period of School+ usage. The test battery was composed with tests assessing sociocognitive skills and socio-adaptive behaviors. Also, the usbaility of School+ was assessed through stakeholders' points of view and collection of log data.

The results from this evaluaiton was in favor of benefits from School+, with an increase of adaptive behaviors, a decrease of maladaptive ones, as well as an improvement of sociocognitive skills and of social responsiveness. Moreover, students get quickly familiar with the use of School+, and there were no usability problems from evaluation.

This work is funded by the French Ministry of National Education.

 


Project continuation

From the positive results of the School+ evaluation, Phoenix team and their partners continues to develop this project. First, the application have been redesigned in terms of fonctionnalities and esthetics for gather all applications into an harmonious and coherent application. School+ V2 is now a unique application, always composed with different modules for the training and the assistance, but all are now available from the same interface. These new developments allows the team to publish School+ on the AppStore, in order to be available for free on iOS platforms.

Second, fortified with the evaluation of School+ V1, the project continuation also envisage to extend School+ solution with new applications, as well as existing applications' improvement. Moreover, further development will include supports for adapting School+ fonctionnalities to the student's profile, in order to allow a better customization of the school intervention. Third, a larger evaluation in real settings will be conducted, aiming to validate the efficacy and the usability of School+ with a larger sample of students, and during a longer period of time.

The project continuation and the School+ V2 development was funded by the French Orange Foundation.

 

 


Contributors


External Collaborators



Publications


2017

Book sections

titre
France
auteur
Charles Fage, P Moullet, Charles Consel, Hélène Sauzeon
article
Michael L. Wehmeyer and James R. Patton. The Praeger International Handbook of Special Education, 2, ABC-CLIO Corporate ABC-CLIO, pp.26, 2017, 〈http://www.abc-clio.com/ABC-CLIOCorporate/product.aspx?pc=A4262C〉
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01354195/file/FRANCE-%20Handbook-2_EN-Final.pdf BibTex

2016

Journal articles

titre
Tablet-Based Activity Schedule in Mainstream Environment for Children with Autism and Children with ID
auteur
Charles Fage, Léonard Pommereau, Charles Consel, Emilie Balland, Hélène Sauzeon
article
ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing , ACM New York, NY, USA 2016, Transactions on Accessible Computing, 8 (3), 〈10.1145/2854156〉
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01330442/file/Main.pdf BibTex

Conference papers

titre
A systematic design methodology toward sensor placement
auteur
Maïlys Pointreau, David Daney, Charles Fage, Aurélien Massein
article
10th World Conference of Gerontechnology, Sep 2016, Nice, France. 2016
Accès au bibtex
BibTex

Book sections

titre
Applications Numériques pour la Cognition Sociale pour Favoriser l'Inclusion Scolaire des Élèves avec Troubles du Spectre Autistique (TSA)
auteur
Charles Fage, Charles Consel, Etchegoyen K, Amestoy Anouck, Manuel Bouvard, Hélène Sauzeon
article
V. Brun; J-M. Mazaux; P-A. Joseph; A. Prouteau. La Cognition Sociale, SAURAMPS MEDICAL, pp.85 -109, 2016, 9791030300482. 〈http://www.livres-medicaux.com/la-cognition-sociale.html〉
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01611303/file/Fage-InterventionTSA%20-%20FULL.pdf BibTex

Theses

titre
Conception et Validation Expérimentale d’un Assistant Numérique pour l’Inclusion Scolaire d’Enfants avec Troubles du Spectre Autistique en Classe Ordinaire
auteur
Charles Fage
article
Sciences cognitives. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. Français. 〈NNT : 2016BORD0111〉
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01384613/file/FAGE_CHARLES_2016.pdf BibTex

2015

Journal articles

titre
Application Mobile d’Aide à la Conduite d’Activités pour l’Inclusion en Classe Ordinaire des Collégiens avec Troubles du Spectre Autistique.
auteur
Charles Fage, Charles Consel, Hélène Sauzeon
article
Rééducation orthophonique, Ortho édition, 2015, 〈http://www.fno.fr/non-classe/reeducation-orthophonique/〉
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01241439/file/Prompting_TSA%20relu%20Aw%20le%2011.08.15.pdf BibTex

Conference papers

titre
Utilisation de la conception centrée utilisateur dans les applications pour les enfants avec troubles du spectre autistique Vers des outils d’inclusion en classe ordinaire
auteur
Cécile Magnier, Charles Fage, Kattalin Etchegoyhen, Charles Consel, Hélène Sauzeon
article
Colloque des Jeunes Chercheurs en Sciences Cognitives CJCSC 2015, Jun 2015, Compiègne, France. 〈http://cjcsc.sciencesconf.org〉
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01241286/file/Article_CJC-SC-VF.pdf BibTex

2014

Conference papers

titre
Tablet-Based Activity Schedule for Children with Autism in Mainstream Environment
auteur
Charles Fage, Léonard Pommereau, Charles Consel, Emilie Balland, Hélène Sauzeon
article
ASSETS 2014 - The 16th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, Oct 2014, Rochester, United States. ACM, 2014, 〈10.1145/2661334.2661369〉
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01016044/file/Autism_prompting_application.pdf BibTex

2012

Journal articles

titre
Projet Collège+ : validation d’un assistant numérique pour l’inclusion scolaire de collégiens porteurs d’autisme
auteur
Charles Fage, Charles Consel, Emilie Balland, Damien Martin-Guillerez, Bernard N'Kaoua, Bruno Gepner, Carole Tardif, Hélène Sauzeon
article
Bulletin Scientifique de l'ARAPI, Massy : ARAPI 2012, 8e Journée Régionale de l'arapi Autisme : quelles évolutions et innovations dans les réseaux et dispositifs d'accompagnement ?, 〈http://www.arapi-autisme.fr/publicationArapiL.php〉
Accès au texte intégral et bibtex
https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01241469/file/ARAPI.pdf BibTex